Category - Anal
In patients with sacral (lower spinal) cord lesions, there is poor sensation of rectal filling, poor rectal tone, and loss of voluntary contraction of the external anal sphincter. Fecal incontinence (fi), or in some forms encopresis, is a lack of control over defecation, leading to involuntary loss of bowel contents both liquid stool elements and mucus, or solid feces. When this loss includes flatus (gas) it is referred to as anal incontinence. Incontinence can result from different causes and might occur with either constipation. Patients with lesions above the cone usually suffer from an overactive bowel with increased colonic wall and anal tone. Disruption of the anal sphincters is commonly encountered during obstetrical injuries, making it the most common cause of surgically correctible incontinence in women. 7 the rate of obstetrical injuries after vaginal deliveries ranges between 0 and 24 8 however, prospective studies have reported that up to 35 of primiparous women sustain trauma to the anal sphincters that goes unrecognized. Though resting sphincter tone is predominantly attributed to the internal anal sphincter, studies under general anesthesia or after pudendal nerve block suggest the external anal sphincter generally accounts for approximately 25, and up to 50, of resting anal tone. 9, 33, 40, 50, 144, 170 when continence is threatened, the external sphincter contracts to augment anal tone, preserving continence. Normal values for anorectal manometry in adults are published. Anal resting tone varies from 49 3 to 58 3 mm hg in women and from 49 3 to 66 6 mm hg in men. Cauda equina syndrome (ces) is a condition that occurs when the bundle of nerves below the end of the spinal cord known as the cauda equina is damaged. Signs and symptoms include low back pain, pain that radiates down the leg, numbness around the anus, and loss of bowel or bladder control. The cause is usually a disc herniation in the lower region of the back. Absent triceps reflex symptom checker possible causes include polyneuropathy. He has no anal sphincter tone, absent perianal sensation, absent lower extremity sensation, and an intact bulbocavernosus reflex. patients can present with symptoms of isolated cauda equina syndrome, isolated conus medullaris syndrome, or a combination. The symptoms and signs of cauda equina syndrome tend to be mostly lower motor neuron (lmn) in nature, while those of conus medullaris syndrome are a combination of lmn and upper motor neuron (umn) effects (see table 1, below). Cauda equina syndrome (ces) is a rare but serious neurological condition affecting the bundle of nerve roots at the lower end of the spinal cord. The ce provides innervation to the lower limbs, and sphincter,controls the function of the bladder and distal bowel and sensation to the skin around the bottom and back passage 1.